The thesis is devoted to developing the principles of improving the efficiency of electric arc plasma torches for spraying and surfacing. Scientific methods of improving resource efficiency and electric arc plasma torches by creating conditions for reducing the heat load on the cathode current distribution arc and gas flow along the discharge channel organization of the anode unit linked with diffuse arc, intensification of heat exchange between the arc stream of gas heated, and material that is processed. Experimental studies of plasma torches designed for the deposition showed that the value of arc current 100 … 400 A and the working gas (air) with a flow rate (1,5…2)*10-3 kg share erosion of hafnium electrode diameter of 0,025 m was 10*10-11… 10*10-9 kg/C. Plasmatrons for powder surfacing materials up to 40 kW are stable on straight and reverse polarity at nominal operating current of 300 … 315 A with a flow plazma, and carrier protective gas (argon) (0,8 … 1,8)*10-3 kg/s, and the life of not less than 50 hours. The results of experimental studies confirmed the proposed principles improve the efficiency of electric arc plasma torches that were used to develop sample plasma torches for spraying and surfacing.